Originating in South East Asia, Long Pepper was the first pepper brought to the west. Ancient Greece is believed to be the first culture to have a documented history of it's use, followed by the Romans. Whatever it's history, it has fallen from it's once high acclaim. It is grown in india, Indonesia, Bali and Thailand, in large enough quantities to be exported. It's flavor tends to be more powerful than "regular" peppercrorns. It's heat level is higher, yet it still produces very subtle, but still noticable, sweet undertones. These sweet and pungeant flavors cannot be obtained from black, white, or green pepper.
Use anywhere you would use black pepper. Roast whole and grind for a mellow flavor, or use as is for a nice pop!